BASANT, a musical measure used in the Gurū Granth Sāhib. It is a rāga of the season of Basant (Skt. vasant) or spring, and during that season can be sung any time of day or night. Otherwise, it is reserved for the night between 9 p. m. and midnight. It is a very popular and melodious measure tracing its origin to the eighth century. In the Rāgamālā, as included in the Sikh scripture, it is recorded as a son (putra) of Hiṇḍol which is also a rāga of spring. The only variant of Basant employed in the Gurū Granth Sāhib is Basant Hiṇḍol : the latter is not very popular and is used in no other granth. Basant is performed in slow tempo, and this gentle melody depicts quiet joy. The descending scale is usually found at the beginning of a composition with the ascending form following later.
Ascending : Sa Ga M'a Dha Ṡa
Descending : R'e Ne Dha Pa - M'a Ga M'a Ga Re Sa
Vādīs : tar saptak Ṡa and madhya saptak Pa
Pakaṛ :Sa Ma Ga Ma Dha S'a -- R'e Ne
Dha Pa -- M'a Ga M'a Ga Re Sa
If Basant melodies do not begin on upper Sa, they will move quickly to it, and then slowly descending on the high Vādī. Descending vādīs are characterized by Ma/tivra - Ga in alternate fast and slow sequence. Sometimes a glide comes between Ne and Dha Komal. In ascending patterns, Re Komal and Pa are avoided.
In the Gurū Granth Sāhib, Gurū Nānak, Gurū Amar Dās, Gurū Rām Dās, Gurū Arjan and Gurū Tegh Bahādur, besides Kabīr, Rāmānand, Nāmdev and Ravidās, have composed hymns in the Basant measure.