NIZĀM UD-DĪN (d. 1802), the Paṭhān chief of Kasūr and a tributary of the Bhaṅgī sardārs, overthrew his allegiance to the Sikhs and submitted to Shāh Zamān, the king of Afghanistan, when the latter invaded India in January 1797. Nizām ud-Dīn took possession of the forts evacuated by the Sikhs. During Shāh Zamān's next invasion in November 1798, he presented a nazar to him and entreated that he be appointed governor of the Punjab for a tribute of 5, 00, 000 rupees annually which proposition was not acceptable to the Shāh. On the retirement of Shāh Zamān in 1799, Nizām ud-Dīn tried in vain to persuade the Muslim citizens of Lahore to accept him as their ruler, but they rejected the proposal and invited Raṇjīt Siṅgh instead to take possession of the city. In 1800 Nizām ud-Dīn joined hands with the Bhaṅgīs. They jointly challenged Raṅjīt Siṅgh at Bhasīn, near Lahore, but were repulsed. Soon thereafter Raṇjīt Siṅgh sent an expedition against Nizām ud-Dīn under Fateh Siṅgh Kāliaṅvālā, who laid siege to the town of Kasūr. In the florid Persian of the court diarist Sohan Lāl Sūrī: "Like a moth, Nizām ud-Dīn fell upon the lamp of the glory of the armies, burnt his wings and having failed to carry on the open battle, became besieged." Nizām ud-Dīn sued for peace, paid a heavy indemnity and agreed to become a tributary of Raṇjīt Siṅgh. In 1802, he was assassinated by his own brother-in-law.


  1. Sūrī, Sohan Lāl, 'Umdāt ut-Twārīkh. Lahore, 1885-89
  2. Griffin, Lepel and C.F. Massy, Chiefs and Families of Note in the Punjab. Lahore, 1940
  3. Latif, Syad Muhammad, History of the Panjab. Lahore, 1891
  4. Bhagat Singh, Maharaja Ranjit Siṅgh and His Times. Delhi, 1990
  5. Khushwant Singh, Ranjit Singh, Maharajah of the Punjab. Bombay, 1973
  6. Harbans Singh, Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Delhi, 1980

Harī Rām Gupta