AKHBĀRĀT-I-SIṄGHĀṄ, also known as Twārīkh-i-Sikkhāṅ, is a diary of the day-to-day events of the period from 1895 Bk/AD 1839 to 1903 Bk/AD 1847, based on official reports which General Avitabile (q. v. ), military governor of Peshāwar during Sikh times, received from various districts under his jurisdiction. It is written in Khatt-i-Shikastā, also called Khatt-i-Dīwānī the name of the compiler is not known. The only known manuscript is available, in three volumes, at the Paňjāb University Library, Lahore, under MS. No. PE III, 30.

        Volume I, comprising 250 folios, covers the period from 12 Chet 1895 Bk to 3 Jeṭh, 1896/23 March 1839- May 1839 and contains news from Peshāwar. It starts with a meeting at Peshāwar between General Avitabile and Colonel Wade, the British political agent on the Anglo-Sikh frontier. Details of the effusive welcome given the latter are recorded, but nothing of what transpired between the two: There is also a report on the meeting between Colonel Wade and General Ventura (q. v. ) on 10 Baisākh 1896 Bk/21 April 1839. In the month of Baisākh Samvat 1896, Prince Nau Nihāl Siṅgh visited Peshāwar where special arrangements were made for his stay. Every morning after listening to pāṭh (reading of texts) from the Gurū Granth Sāhib, the prince held his darbār. Details are given of the income from revenue deposited in the treasury by the local landlords; also, of the expenditure of the army. It is recorded that the Sikh army officers stationed at Peshāwar were fully aware of the political situation in Afghanistan and that the Lahore Darbār received through them regular reports on the events in that country. Another report tells of Prince Nau Nihāl Siṅgh's visit to Peshāwar in Baisākh 1896/April-May 1839. The Prince held a darbār at which he gave audience to the Peshāwar Bārakzaīs-Pīr Muhammad Khān and Sultān Muhammad Khān. Those in attendance on the prince included Atar Siṅgh Sandhāṅvālīā, General Ventura, Lahiṇā Siṅgh Majīṭhīā, Fateh Siṅgh and Shaikh Ghulām Mohi ud-Dīn. The Prince fell ill at Peshāwar and was treated by Hakīm Aizād Bakhsh. Volume II, comprising 226 folios, covers the period from 2 Bhādoṅ 1898 Bk to 29 Māgh 1898 Bk/15 August 1841--9 February 1842. It describes in general activities of Avitabile on the north-west frontier. It begins with the General holding a darbār or court at which kārdārs, i. e. revenue officials and heads of the various departments, present reports of the conditions prevailing in the areas under their jurisdiction. The General checked the record of the income from revenue and the expenditure on the army. Reports from Bannū and Kohāṭ were presented and instructions by the General were issued on the spot. He was also informed that on his way from Peshāwar to Kohāṭ, Dr James, another of the European employees of Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh, was robbed by the Afrīdīs. Volume III, comprising 192 folios and covering the period from 16 Bhādoṅ 1903 Bk to 8 Phāgun 1903 Bk/29 August 1846---17 February 1847, contains reports from Bannū, Ḍerā Ismā'īl Khān, Īsā Khel, Mūsā Khel, Kulāchī and Ṭoṅk. The principal character of this volume is Dīwān Daulat Rām, who regularly held court and conducted official business. News on trade and commerce is also given. The author relies for his news on official reports which the military governor of Peshāwar received from various districts and this makes the work authentic and reliable. Though the style resembles that of 'Umdāt-ut-Twārīkh, the author is definitely a different person.

Mohammad Aslam