'AZĪM KHĀN, MUHAMMAD (d. 1823), was one of the sons of Paindā Khān and a brother of Fateh Khān, who appointed him governor of Kashmīr in April 1813. In 1814, Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh made an unsuccessful attempt to conquer Kashmīr. On the death of Fateh Khān in 1818, 'Azīm Khān hurried from Kashmīr to Kābul, and inflicted a crushing defeat on Prince Kāmrān, the assassin of Fateh Khān. He placed Ayūb Khān, a son of Taimūr Shāh, on the throne and himself became prime minister. In 1819, Raṇjīt Siṅgh conquered Kashmīr and, in 1822, he seized the city and province of Peshāwar from Yār Muhammad Khān, brother of 'Azīm Khān. 'Azīm Khān led an expedition to recover Peshāwar and launched a holy war against the Sikhs. The Afghān army stood near Nausherā on both sides of the Kābul river. Raṇjīt Siṅgh himself held command of the Sikh army. A. fierce battle was fought on 14 March 1823. The Afghān host was defeated and 'Azīm Khān fled to Kābul. Peshāwar was left with Yār Muhammad Khān as governor of the Sikh kingdom. 'Azīm Khān died of grief shortly afterwards.


  1. Sūrī, Sohan Lāl, 'Umdāt-ut-Twārīkh. Lahore, 1855-89
  2. Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, vol. I. Princeton, 1968
  3. Bhagat Siṅgh, Maharaja Ranjit Singh and His Times. Delhi, 1990

Sardār Siṅgh Bhāṭīā