CANORA (KANARA), FRANCIS JOHN (1799-1848), an Irishman, inscribed in Khālsā Darbār records variously as Kenny, Kennedy and Khora. Roaming across many countries, he reached Lahore in 1831, and joined Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh's artillery on a daily wage of Rs 3. Gradually, he rose to the rank of colonel, with a salary of Rs 350 per month. He continued to serve in the Sikh army after the first Anglo-Sikh war (1845-46). But his loyalty to the Lahore Darbār was suspect. In 1848, he was commanding an artillery battery at Hazārā and was under the overall command of Chatar Siṅgh Aṭārīvālā, the governor of Hazārā province. Chatar Siṅgh had raised banner of revolt against the British on account of the extraordinary behaviour of Captain James Abbott, assistant to the British resident at Lahore, who had defied the governor's authority by raising Muslim levies to destroy the Sikh brigade stationed in the Fort. When James Abbott, accompanied by Muslim mercenaries, marched on Harīpur Hazārā with a view to expelling the governor, Chatar Siṅgh ordered Canora to move the cannon out of the Fort on the open ground outside. Canora, who was in secret communication with James Abbott, refused to do so. The Sardār charged two companies of infantry to arrest Canora for insubordination. Canora refused to surrender and was consequently shot down under the orders of Chatar Siṅgh.


  1. Grey, C. , European Adventurers of Northern India, 1785-1849 [Reprint]. Patiala, 1970
  2. Gulcharan Singh, Ranjit Singh and His Generals. Jalandhar, n. d.

Gulcharan Siṅgh