DĪVĀN CHAND, MISR (d. 1825), a general in Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh's army, was the son of a Brāhmaṇ shopkeeper of the village of Gondlāṅvālā, in Gujrāṅwālā district, now in Pakistan. He had come to the notice of Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh in 1812 during one of his tours and was appointed a clerk in the accounts section of the ordnance department. In 1814, when Ghaus Khān, head of this department, died, Raṇjīt Siṅgh appointed Dīvān Chand in his place. Between 1814 and 1825, Dīvān Chand was virtually the commander-in-chief of the armies that conquered Multān and Kashmīr. The city of Multān had been besieged for four months since February 1818 before it was finally conquered on 2 June 1818. In the final conquest of Kashmīr (1819) the main army was placed under Dīvān Chand while a supporting column under Prince Khaṛak Siṅgh marched behind him. Dīvān Chand destroyed the fort of Rājaurī. Jabbār Khān, the Afghān governor of Kashmīr, opposed him at the inner entrance to the pass and seized two Sikh guns, but was forced to flee and Kashmīr became part of the Sikh kingdom. Dīvān Chand was honoured by the Mahārājā with the title of Nusrat Jaṅg, "Victor in War. " Earlier, after the conquest of Multān, he had received the title of Zafar Jaṅg, "Conquerer in War. " In 1820, Dīvān Chand captured Rāṇī Sadā Kaur's fort of Aṭalgaṛh, and took Mankerā in 1821. He also took part in the campaigns of Pakhlī, Ṭoṅk, Bannū and Nausherā.

         Misr Dīvān Chand died of cholera at Lahore on 18 July 1825.


  1. Griffin, Lepel, Ranjit Singh. Delhi, 1957
  2. Latif, Syad Muhammad, History of the Panjab. Delhi, 1964
  3. Gulcharan Siṅgh, Ranjit Singh and His Generals. Jalandhar, n. d.

Harī Rām Gupta