GURMUKH SIṄGH LAMMĀ, a commander in Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh's army, born in 1772, was of humble origin, his father, Pardhān Siṅgh, being a money-changer in the small town of Khīvā, situated on the right bank of the River Jehlum. Lammā in Punjabi means tall, but the cognomen Lammā was not conferred on Gurmukh Siṅgh on account of his height, for he was of middle stature, but from his taking command of the contingent of Mohar Siṅgh Lammā who was exceptionally tall. In the summer of 1780, as Mahāṅ Siṅgh Sukkarchakkīā was passing through the town on his return from an expedition in the neighbourhood of Piṇḍ Dādan Khān, Gurmukh Siṅgh, then a boy of eight years, joined his camp. He was the childhood companion of his son, Raṇjīt Siṅgh. During the early years of Raṇjīt Siṅgh's power, wealth and honours were showered on Gurmukh Siṅgh liberally. He was with Raṇjīt Siṅgh at the capture of Lahore in July 1799, and was then made paymaster of the forces and put in charge of the treasury. Gurmukh Siṅgh fought in most of the campaigns undertaken by the Mahārājā. He fought at Kasūr where he commanded 2, 000 troops, at Jhaṅg and Siālkoṭ, and against the Gurkhās in 1809. The next year he took part in the siege of Multān, and in attacks on Sāhīvāl and Khushāb. He commanded a division in the battle of Attock in 1813 and fought in Kashmīr. Fifteen times he was wounded in battle: eight times by musket-balls, thrice by sword-cuts, thrice by spear thrusts, and once by an arrow. For his services Gurmukh Siṅgh was munificently rewarded by his master. Before the capture of Lahore, he received in jāgīr Piṇḍī Lālā and Shahīdāṅvālā and afterwards Ḍiṅgā and Ratto. After the conquest of Kāsur in 1807, he received jāgīrs in the Kasūr area. When Nar Siṅgh Chamiārīvālā died in 1806, his troops were placed under Gurmukh Siṅgh, and a large portion of his estates also. At one time Gurmukh Siṅgh's estates amounted to three and a half lakh of rupees, but the envy of the Ḍogrās, Gulāb Siṅgh and Dhiān Siṅgh, destroyed both his power and wealth.

         In August 1847, Gurmukh Siṅgh was appointed along with Būṛ Siṅgh of Mukeriāṅ to take charge of Mahārāṇī Jind Kaur, confined at Sheikhūpurā. His son Atar Siṅgh (d. 1880) held jāgīrs at Naushehrā in Shāhpur and Piṇḍī Lālā, Chakk Basāvā, Doburjī and Qilā Atar Siṅgh in Gujrāt.


  1. Griffin, Lepel, and C.F. Massy, Chiefs and Families of Note in the Punjab. Lahore, 1909
  2. Sūrī, Sohan Lāl, 'Umdāt-ut-Twārīkh, Lahore, 1885-89

Sardār Siṅgh Bhāṭīā