GURUMUKHĪ DIN PATRĪ, lit. a calendar or daily diary (patrī) in Gurmukhī characters, is a manuscript reporting some of the events of Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh's reign from AD 1805 onwards. The author is one Rām Siṅgh, perhaps a resident of Amritsar, for he narrates events occurring at Amritsar in greater detail than those at other places. A photo-copy of this manuscript, the original of which was at the Pañjāb University, Lahore, is preserved in the Khālsā College, Amritsar, under MS. No 1796. It contains 51 folios, i.e. 102 pages, each page comprising 14 lines. On the very first page are mentioned five of the marriages of Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh, including the one with Rāṇī Jindāṅ, mother of Mahārājā Duleep Siṅgh. It was on the Holī day of 1860 Bk/AD 1803 that Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh received Jasvant Rāo Marhaṭṭā [Marāṭhā] at Amritsar where they exchanged turbans, betokening that they had become brothers from that day. The entry further reads : "Marhaṭṭās did a good deal of shopping, and hence traders of Amritsar benefited to a very great extent. The Gurū himself is the saviour of Amritsar and he saved the honour of the city in the matter of supplies and variety, at which the Marhaṭṭās were really amazed." To give an idea of the Marhaṭṭās' wealth, their elephants are described as having gold chains.

         According to some other entries, Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh conquered Kaṅgṛā in 1856 Bk/AD 1799, finally occupying it in 1874 Bk. Prince Khaṛak Siṅgh, son of Raṇjīt Siṅgh, was married to Chand Kaur in 1868 Bk/AD 1811. The Mahārājā died in 1896 Bk/AD 1839 and four queens and seven maids burnt themselves on his pyre. The cause? This is what the Patrī says: "The Mahārājā had a meeting in December-January with the English and took English wine. He was rendered incapable of speech the next month and died in that condition six months later."

         The diary ends with the Anglo-Sikh war of 1902 Bk/AD 1845-46. However, the last pages contain bits of miscellaneous information. It is recorded that the construction of Akāl buṅgā continued until 1906 Bk/AD 1849. We also have the dates of death of Fateh Siṅgh Āhlūvālīā (1908 Bk/AD 1851), Gujjar Siṅgh Bhaṅgī, Sāhib Siṅgh Bhaṅgī and Sāhib Siṅgh Bedī. At the end is appended a horoscope of the Mahārājā.

Sarmukh Siṅgh Amole