'IBRATNĀMAH ("The Book of Warning"), by Khair ud-Dīn Muhammad Allāhābādī (d. 1827), a Persian manuscript copies of which are preserved in Oriental Public (Khudā Bakhsh) Library, Bāṅkīpur, Paṭna; Asiatic Society, Calcutta; British Library, London; and Khālsā College, Amritsar, is a detailed history of the reigns of Ālamgīr II (1754-59) and Shāh Ālam II (1759-1806), with a summary account of their ancestors beginning with Taimūr (d. 1405). Khair ud-Dīn was a teacher and historiographer who along with his three brothers had been in the service of the British. He spent his last days at Jaunpur enjoying government pension which he had earned principally by the assistance rendered to James Anderson, British resident with Mahādjī Scindia in 1784-85, in his negotiations with the Marāṭhās. The 'Ibratnāmah is primarily concerned with the life of Shāh Ālam II and dwells extensively upon his earlier life as Prince 'Alī Gauhar; his stay at Allāhābād as a protege of the British; his restoration to the throne of Delhi; and treatment he received at the hands of Ghulām Qādir Ruhīlā. The author is concerned more with the Emperor and his heir apparent and their relations with the Marāṭhās, Jāṭs, Rājpūts and the Ruhīlās than with the Sikhs. There are references in the work to the capture of Mughlānī Begam, widow of Mu'īn ul-Mulk (Mīr Mannū of Sikh chronicles), in 1756 by the Delhi Wazīr, Imād ud-Mūlk Ghāzī ud-Dīn, who entrusted the government of Lahore and Multān to Ādīnā Beg Khān for an annual tribute of Rs 30 lakhs. There are occasional references to Sikh chiefs of the cis-Sutlej region such as Rājā Amar Siṅgh of Paṭiālā and Gajpat Siṅgh of Jīnd in connection with the imperial campaign of 1779 in these parts led by Abdul-Ahd Khān Majd ud-Daulah.


  1. Kirpal Singh, A Catalogue of Persian and Sanskrit Manuscripts. Amritsar, 1962
  2. Ganda Singh, A Bibliography of the Panjab. Patiala, 1966

Syad Hasan Askarī