JAITO (30º-26'N, 74º-53'E), now a flourishing market town in Farīdkoṭ district, became in 1923 the scene of a long-drawn agitation launched by the Shiromaṇī Akālī Dal roused by the forced abdication of the Sikh Mahārājā of Nābhā. The campaign followed the interruption by the Nābhā state authorities of the akhaṇḍ pāṭh or continuous recitation of the Gurū Granth Sāhib started at Jaito, which lay in the deposed Mahārājā's territory, to express sympathy for him. Jaito now has three gurdwārās of historical importance.

        GURDWĀRĀ GAṄGSAR SĀHIB PĀTSHĀHĪ X, close to the old Jaito village, commemorates the site visited by Gurū Gobind Siṅgh who arrived here in December 1705 from Koṭ Kapūrā. The modest old building was replaced by a higher one by Mahārājā Hīrā Siṅgh, Nābhā (1843-1911), renovated since through kār-sevā by the successors of Sant Gurmukh Siṅgh. The Gurdwārā derives its name from the adjacent sarovar, Gaṅgsar. Here was interrupted on 14 September 1923 an akhaṇḍ pāṭh for Mahārājā Ripudaman Siṅgh, the deposed ruler of Nābhā. Successful conclusion of the two-year agitation protesting against the interruption of the akhaṇḍ pāṭh was celebrated with the holding in the Gurdwārā recital of a series of 101 akhaṇḍ pāṭhs from 21 July to 6 August 1925. The Gurdwārā is endowed with 70 acres of land and is administered by the Shiromaṇī Gurdwārā Parbandhak Committee through a local committee, which also manages the other two gurdwārās in Jaito. A special religious dīvān takes place on the 21st of February every year to commemorate the martyrs who fell in the firing on Akālī volunteers marching peacefully on 21 February 1924.

        GURDWĀRĀ ṬIBBĪ SĀHIB is situated on the sandy mound consecrated by Gurū Gobind Siṅgh's visit in 1705. It was from this vantage point that during the Jaito agitation the peaceful jathā of 500 Sikhs was fired upon. Twenty-one of them were killed, besides many wounded. Yet the jathā went on undeterred and reached Gurdwārā Ṭibbī Sāhib, where it was beaten up by police and taken into custody. The present building constructed during the 1980's by the successors of Sant Gurmukh Siṅgh is a high-ceilinged hall inside a walled compound, with the sanctum at the far end.

        GURDWĀRĀ AṄGĪṬHĀ SĀHIB, half a kilometre south of Gurdwārā Gaṅgsar Sāhib, was built on the site where those who fell martyrs in the firing on 21 February 1924 were cremated.


  1. Tārā Siṅgh, Srī Gur Tīrath Saṅgrahi. Amritsar, n.d.
  2. Ṭhākar Siṅgh, Giānī, Srī Gurduāre Darshan. Amritsar, 1923
  3. Giān Siṅgh, Giānī, Twārīkh Gurduāriāṅ. Amritsar, n.d.

Major Gurmukh Siṅgh (Retd.)