JAVAND SIṄGH, one of the five Sikhs who administered pāhul or the vows of Khālsā to Mahārājā Duleep Siṅgh at Aden, belonged to the village of Barkī, in Lahore district. After serving for a while as a police constable, he had retired to his village to take to farming. When the news came that the Mahārājā had been detained at Aden and refused permission to come to India, Javand Siṅgh and Ṭhākur Siṅgh of Wāgāh proceeded to Aden to meet him. At Aden, Duleep Siṅgh decided formally to return to the faith of his forefathers and receive the rites of initiation. Javand Siṅgh was included among the five Sikhs chosen to conduct the ceremony.


    Ganda Singh, ed., History of the Freedom Movement in the Panjab (Maharaja Duleep Singh Correspondence) . Patiala, 1972

K. S. Thāpar