KHAṚAK SIṄGH, BĀBĀ (1868-1963), Sikh political leader and virtually the first president of the Shiromaṇī Gurdwārā Parbandhak Committee, was born on 6 June 1868 at Siālkoṭ, now in Pakistan. His father, Rāi Bahādur Sardār Harī Siṅgh, was a wealthy contractor and industrialist. Khaṛak Siṅgh, having passed his matriculation examination from Mission High School and intermediate from Murray College, both at Siālkoṭ, joined Government College, Lahore, and was among the first batch of students who graduated from the Pañjāb University in 1889. He then joined Law College, Allāhābād, but could not complete his course owing to the death of his father and elder brother in quick succession. He returned to Siālkoṭ to manage the family property. He started his public life in 1912 as chairman of the reception committee of the 5th session of the Sikh Educational Conference held at Siālkoṭ. Three years later, as president of the 8th session of the Conference held at Tarn Tāran, he surprised everyone by walking to the site of the conference breaking the custom of being carried in state on a buggy driven by six horses. He also refused permission for a resolution to be moved at the conference wishing victory to the British in World War I.

         It was the Jalliāṅvālā Bāgh massacre of 1919 which brought Khaṛak Siṅgh actively into Sikh politics. In 1920, he became president of the Central Sikh League which under his direction led the Sikhs to participate in the non-co-operation movement launched by Mahātmā Gāndhī. In 1921, he was elected president of the Shiromaṇī Gurdwārā Parbandhak Committee and in the year following also president of the Punjab Provincial Congress Committee. He successfully led in 1921-22 the agitation for the restoration to the Sikhs of the keys of the Golden Temple treasury seized by the British Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar, and underwent during this campaign the first of his numerous jail terms. Arrested on 26 November 1921 for making an anti-government speech, he was sentenced to six months' imprisonment on 2 December 1921, but was released on 17 January 1922 when the keys of the toshākhānā were also surrendered to him. He was, however, re-arrested soon and, on 4 April 1922, was awarded one year's jail for running a factory for manufacturing kirpāns, one of the religious symbols of the Sikhs, and another three years on charges of making seditious speeches. He was sent to jail in distant Ḍerā Ghāzī Khān (now in Pakistan), where in protest against the forced removal of the turbans of Sikh and Gāndhī caps of non-Sikh political prisoners, he discarded all his clothes except his kachhahirā or drawers. Despite the extreme weather conditions of the place, he remained barebacked until he was released after his full term (twice extended for non-obedience of orders) on 4 June 1927. He had unanimously been elected president in absentia of the Gurdwārā Central Board (later redesignated Shiromaṇī Gurdwārā Parbandhak Committee) constituted under the Sikh Gurdwārās Act, 1925, and was re-elected to the high office after fresh elections in 1930. He resigned soon after, although he continued to work both for national independence and for the protection of Sikh interests. Earlier during 1928-29, he had vehemently opposed the Nehrū Committee Report until the Congress Party shelved it and undertook to secure Sikhs' concurrence in the framing of constitutional proposals in the future. He opposed, though without success, the Communal Award, which gave statutory majority to Muslims in the Punjab, and was in and out of jail on several occasions for making what the government held to be seditious speeches. He was a firm protagonist of national unity and opposed both the Muslim League's demand for Pakistan and the Akālī proposal for an Azād Punjab. After 1947, he stayed in Delhi in virtual retirement, and died there on 6 October 1963 at the ripe age of 95.


  1. Mohinder Singh, The Akali Movement. Delhi, 1978
  2. Harbans Singh, The Heritage of the Sikhs. Delhi, 1983
  3. Ganda Singh, Some Confidential Papers of the Akali Movement. Amritsar, 1965
  4. Tuteja, K.L., Sikh Politics. Kurukshetra, 1984
  5. Pratāp Siṅgh, Giānī, Gurdwārā Sudhār arthāt Akālī Lahir. Amritsar, 1975
  6. Josh, Sohan Siṅgh, Akālī Morchiān dā Itihās. Delhi, 1972
  7. Piār Siṅgh, Tejā Siṅgh Samundrī. Amritsar, 1975
  8. Mān Siṅgh, Āzādī dī Shamhā de Sikh Parvāne. Delhi, 1973

Major Gurmukh Siṅgh (Retd.)