MĀLO BHĀĪ and Bhāī Māṅgā, both named by Bhāī Gurdās, Vārāṅ, X1. 13, among the notable Sikhs of Gurū Nānak, were musicians who once sought audience of the Gurū and begged him to unfold to them the tapas or devotion most beneficial for them. Gurū Nānak, says Bhāī Manī Siṅgh, Sikhāṅ dī Bhagat Mālā, said to them, "Tapas as commonly understood involves bodily mortification and austerities which avail but little. For you the best tapas will be to devote yourselves to kīrtan or hymn singing and kathā or exposition of the sacred word both performed in the saṅgat, i.e., holy assembly. This will bring you and your listeners solace and enhance your faith." Bhāī Mālo and Bhāī Māṅgā dedicated the rest of their lives to kathā and kīrtan.


  1. Manī Siṅgh, Bhāī, Sikhāṅ dī Bhagat Mālā. Amritsar, 1955
  2. Santokh Siṅgh, Bhāī, Srī Gur Pratāp Sūraj Granth, Amritsar, 1927-35

Gurnek Siṅgh