MŪL SIṄGH GARMŪLĀ, BHĀĪ (1846-1945), religious preacher and reformist, was the son of Jodh Siṅgh, a well-to-do Vīrk Jaṭṭ of the village of Garmūlā Vīrkāṅ in Gujrāṅwālā (later in Sheikhūpurā) district of the Punjab, now in Pakistan. He learnt Punjabi and Sikh religious texts and history at home and in the village gurdwārā, and also became well-versed in Urdu and Persian with the help of the local maulawī or Muslim teacher, who being a physician also taught him hikmat or the yūnānī system of medicine. Mūl Siṅgh had a sharp memory and studious habits, and soon started giving sermons at Sikh gatherings. Although he attached himself primarily to Nankāṇā Sāhib, he travelled throughout the Punjab districts preaching the Siṅgh Sabhā creed of reformation of Sikh custom and practice. He also espoused the shuddhī movement aimed at proselytizing members of other faiths and of the so-called low classes admitting them as members of the Khālsā brotherhood. Endowed with a good singing voice and equipped with a vast store of knowledge, historical as well as scriptural, Bhāī Mūl Siṅgh was one of the most popular Sikh preachers of his time. His sermons were laced with quotations from gurbāṇī, the Qur'ān, Bhāī Gurdās, Dīwān-i-Goyā, Shaikh Sa'ādī and Firdausī.

         Bhāī Mūl Siṅgh was also a versifier of some merit. Four of his works published in his lifetime are extant : Tibb-i-Mūl, a treatise on Unānī system of medicine; Upkār Khālsā, the story of 16,000 Hindu girls taken prisoner by Afghān invaders and rescued and restored to their homes by the Dal Khālsā Gurū Garīb Nivāj, a brief history of the Sikhs and denunciation of superstitious rites; and Khālsā Chandan Brichh explaining the anand kāraj ceremony in the context of the marriage of Bībī Sāhib Kaur, daughter of Bhāī Subeg Siṅgh Shahīd of Jambar, to a Sikh young man of Garmūlā Vīrkāṅ. The last-mentioned book, published in 1935 gives in the introduction nine other titles "ready for press" and four more "in preparation". It is doubtful if any of these 13 works was ever published.

         Bhāī Mūl Siṅgh retired from active life after 1935. He died peacefully at this village home in 1945.


  1. Naraiṇ Siṅgh, Akālī Morche te Jhabbar. Delhi, 1967
  2. Piār Siṅgh, Tejā Siṅgh Samundrī . Amritsar, 1975

Sarmukh Siṅgh Amole