PANOPLY, To have established precise standards of regal usage and hospitality was remarkable for one born to a small worldly inheritance. Raṇjīt Siṅgh's patrimony did not amount to more than a few villages precariously held in those turbulent days, and his authority scarcely coincided with any recognizable or settled geographical demarcation. He carved out sovereignty for himself in his own lifetime after a protracted and bitter struggle, but the tradition of noble pomp and splendour he set up was unmatched by royalties of much older origin. There could be no better example of his love of magnificence and eclat than the wedding of his grandson, Nau Nihāl Siṅgh, which was one of the most lavish celebrations in the history of the country. Raṇjīt Siṅgh had nearly half a million people assembled to claim charity on the occasion and gave away in a single day a sum of twenty lakhs of rupees.

         Nau Nihāl Siṅgh was at that time sixteen year old. He had already shown his ability as a soldier, having taken part in several warlike campaigns. It was during one such campaign that Shām Siṅgh Aṭārīvālā, a leading Sikh sardār, pledged the hand of his daughter to him.

         Raṇjīt Siṅgh sent invitations to the British Governor-General, the Commander-in-Chief, Sir Henry Fane, his old friend, Sir Charles Metcalfe, then Governor of Āgrā, and the chiefs of a number of Indian states. The rulers of Paṭiala, Farīdkoṭ, Kapūrthalā, Naraingaṛh, Nābhā, Jīnd, Mālerkoṭlā, Kalsīā, Maṇḍī and Suket responded to the invitation. Sir Henry Fane, the Commander-in-Chief, with Lady Fane and staff, attended on behalf of the Governor-General.

         As Sir Henry crossed the Sutlej at Harīke on 3 March 1837, he was met by Sher Siṅgh. The guests were impressed by the host's good nature and quiet and gentlemanly manner. The young prince at once made friends with Sir Henry Fane, who came to see him in his tent on the following day. He had with him an artist, who, standing in front of the two chiefs, made a likeness of Sir Henry. The guests admired the furnishings of Sher Siṅgh's camp, especially his dressing room which was filled with perfumes from France and other European luxuries of toilet.

         The Commander-in-Chief, accompanied by Sher Siṅgh and his train, left for Amritsar. Three kilo-metres from the city, they were met by Khaṛak Siṅgh, father of the bridegroom. Sir Henry Fane was presented with a ziāfat (entertainment) of five thousand rupees. He entered the city under a salute of guns fired from the Fort of Gobindgaṛh. Upon reaching his camp, he fired a salute of twenty-one guns in honour of the Sikh ruler. Then he came to visit the Mahārājā who was staying in his garden house, the Rām Bāgh. Raṇjīt Siṅgh wore a green turban and had a row of pearls round his neck. The canopy under which he sat was made of beautiful Kashmīri shawls, inlaid with silver. It had silver poles to support it. The dresses and jewels of the Mahārājā's court were of the richest quality. Hīrā Siṅgh, son of Dhiān Siṅgh, looked one mass of jewels. Raṇjīt Siṅgh received Sir Henry with his usual geniality. Some of the many questions he asked him were about the size of the East India Company's army, the number of battles he had been in and the way the English cast their guns.

         In the evening was held the ceremony of presenting offerings to the bridegroom. Sir Henry presented eleven thousand rupees, Dhiān Siṅgh one lakh and twenty-five thousand and Gulāb Siṅgh, Suchet Siṅgh and Misr Rūp Lāl fifty one thousand each. Other chiefs and guests made offerings according to their rank and position. The presents altogether were valued at fifty-lakhs of rupees.

         The wedding party started for the bride's place on elephants richly equipped and decorated. Passing through the streets of the city, the procession reached the Harimandar where blessings were sought for the bridegroom. The Mahārājā put the bridal crown of the rarest pearls, hung on gold thread, on the forehead of Nau Nihāl Siṅgh.

         The party formed a gorgeous procession composed of silk clad men, mounted upon stately elephants. Unique was the splendour and bustle of the occasion. Hundreds of thousands of spectators, who had come from all parts of the country, lined up on both sides of the road from Amritsar to Aṭārī, the bride's village. All around, there were crowds of men cheering the wedding party. Raṇjīt Siṅgh had ordered bags, each containing coins worth two thousand rupees, to be placed at the disposal of the guests. The money was being showered on the spectators. Raṇjīt Siṅgh, the members of the royal family and the more prominent guests cast handfuls of gold mohurs instead of silver coins. At the head of the cavalcade was a moving throne, decked out in handsome style, on which music and dancing continued all the way.

         Shām Siṅgh Aṭārīvālā, the host, had made equally elaborate arrangements for the reception of the guests. The passage to his mansion was spread with velvet and brocade. The guns and fireworks were let off as the party arrived. The Mahārājā was received with an offering of one hundred and one gold mohurs and five horses, Khaṛak Siṅgh with fifty-one mohurs and a horse and the other princes with eleven mohurs and a horse each. The guests were then conducted to the top floor of Shām Siṅgh's castle. The bridegroom sat between the Mahārājā and the British Commander-in-Chief, under a canopy embroidered with silver and gold. Raṇjīt Siṅgh wore on his arm the celebrated Koh-i-Nūr.

         After nine o'clock began the religious ceremony. The air became thick with the holy chants and with felicitations for the Mahārājā from all sides. A display of fireworks was subsequently held in the centre of the large enclosure where camps had been laid out for the Māhārājā and Sir Henry Fane and other guests. The entertainment and gaiety went on far into the night.

         The next day, Raṇjīt Siṅgh surpassed himself for bounty. The multitude of poor people who had gathered for alms and other spectators were assembled into a space of about eight kilometres in circumference, surrounded by soldiers. No one was allowed to emerge except at the eighty exits where officers were stationed to distribute money. Each one was given butkī, worth five rupees. As a person received his butkī, he was sent out of the circle and not allowed to enter again. A sum of twenty lakhs of rupees was distributed in this manner.

         The Mahārājā and the guests witnessed the sports which comprised wrestling bouts, elephant-fighting and contests in lancing and swordsmanship. In the afternoon the bride's dowry was displayed. It consisted of eleven elephants, 101 horses, 101 cows, 101 buffaloes, 101 camels, all fully caparisoned, hundreds of gold and silver utensils, five hundred pairs of shawls, ornaments, jewels and silk and brocade dresses worth lakhs of rupees. Shām Siṅgh also gave presents to the Mahārājā and the guests.

         After two days of feasting and merriment, the party left for Lahore. The festival of Holī being near, the Mahārājā would not let his guests depart immediately. In the evening, he wanted to give a banquet in the Shālāmār Gardens, but, since the water required for the fountains had not yet come from the Rāvī sufficiently far down the canal, the entertainment was postponed until the following evening.

         The Shālāmār Gardens were brilliantly illuminated with rows of small earthen lamps, placed at regular intervals on the building and down the sides of the walls and tanks. At every ten or twelve yards were placed coloured lamps. The fountains playing in the light of these lamps produced a charming effect. The English ladies were allowed to see the fireworks and a special tent was erected for them on the top of a house. The Mahārājā looked after the guests' comfort personally. The festive eve was prolonged to the small hours of the morning.

         On the third day, Raṇjīt Siṅgh visited Sir Henry in the camp. While passing through the troops which had been drawn up in his honour, he stopped to see the King's 16th Lancers. He had met these troops at Ropaṛ at the time of William Bentinck's visit.

         Raṇjīt Siṅgh turned the formal occasion into a pleasant function by his natural and easy manner and by his well informed questions and conversations. He asked the Commander-in-Chief if the Russian interest was doing the English much harm in Persia and whether Persia could give Russia any useful aid in the event of their advancing towards India. Sir Henry took him into another camp and showed him the presence he had brought for him. Among these were an elephant, eight horses, a double-barrelled gun and a brace of pistols. The Commander-in-Chief apologized that the presents had been collected in a hurry as he had not had sufficient warning of the visit.

         Sir Henry saw a review of Raṇjīt Siṅgh's troops on the bank of the River Rāvī. They were all very well turned out and armed in the European fashion. The Commander-in-Chief praised their skill and discipline. Raṇjīt Siṅgh was present at a similar review of the Commander-in-Chief’s escort.

         One day the guest, were invited to see the court jewels. Raṇjīt Siṅgh's toshākhānā contained a vast variety of stones, armlets bangles and necklaces, each of excelling cost. The Koh-i-Nūr, of course, was the centre of attraction. Then the guest went to a grand entertainment given by Raṇjīt Siṅgh in honour of the English ladies. The ladies were also taken inside to meet the Mahārājā's wives. The senior Mahārānī, with her entourage, received them, Mrs Ventura and Mrs Allard acting as interpreters.

         As the festival of Holī for which the guests had been detained arrived, the Mahārājā invited them all to his camp. They were provided with baskets full of red powder balls, large bowls of yellow saffron and gold squirts. As soon as the guests were seated, the Mahārājā poured colour on Sir Henry's bald head, while Dhiān Siṅgh rubbed him all over with red powder. This was a signal for general colour splashing and ball throwing. The worst sufferer in the rejoicing was the Afghān Ambassador who had come from Kandahār.

         After a fortnight's stay in Lahore, Sir Henry asked leave to depart. A farewell durbār was held and presents were brought forth for him and his party. Raṇjīt Siṅgh shook each of the guests by the hand and wished him goodbye. Prince Sher Siṅgh came as far as the Sutlej to see off the guest. On the bank of the river, Sir Henry held a darbār in his honour and presented him with a buggy and horse.

         In honour of Nau Nihāl Siṅgh's wedding, Raṇjīt Siṅgh started an Order of Merit which was known as Kaukab-i- Iqbāl-i-Punjab, Star of the Prosperity of the Punjab. The Order had three grades, each having its own medal. The medals bore the effigy of Raṇjīt Siṅgh on one side and had silk ribands of gold and scarlet colour. They were in the shape of a star and were meant to be worn round the neck. The first grade medal was ornamented with one diamond. It was meant for the members of the royal family and those chiefs who had shown exceptional devotion to the person of the Mahārājā and his family. The second grade medal with a diamond and an emerald set in it, was bestowed on royal courtiers and sardārs. The third contained a single emerald and was open to the civil and military officers who had rendered some special service to the State.


    Fane, H.E , Five Years in India, 2 vols. London, 1842

Sardār Siṅgh Bhāṭīā