PARDAH SYSTEM, the custom in certain societies of secluding women from men, is of ancient origin. Pardah is a Persian word meaning veil, curtain or screen. Pardah system involves the covering of the bodies or at least faces by grown up women from the gaze of males other than the closest kin, and their confinement to separate apartments in the interior of their homes variously called haram, zenānā, antahpur or avarodha. In its most rigid form the pardah system prevails in some of the Muslim societies, but the custom of the seclusion of women from men existed long before the advent of Islam. There is reference to it in the Old Testament and the practice was in vogue amongst the Chaldeans of Ur. In ancient Greece, Athenian women could not mix freely with male guests or friends of their husbands at home, and their movements outside the home were restricted. Islam only confirmed the custom with religious sanction and strictness. Theoretically a Muslim woman must wear a burqa, a tentlike garment covering the body from head to foot with only an emneshed opening in front of the eyes, whenever stepping out of her house. Even within the house she must veil her face from all men except her father, her brother, and her husband. Among the Hindus of ancient India, pardah was at first confined to the women of some royal households as a symbol of prestige and superiority. The practice eventually passed on, in parts of the country, to aristocratic families, but pardah was not universally accepted as a social institution and was not adopted by the common people. The widespread use of pardah in north India came in the wake of Muslim conquest. Certain classes of Hindus, notably the Rājpūts, adopted it partly as a status symbol in imitation of the new ruling class and partly to protect the modesty of their women from the waywardness of the conqueres. Hindu women, however, did not adopt burqa'; they only covered their faces and busts with their head cloth.

         The Gurūs discouraged discrimination between men and women. As they raised their voice against the custom of satī, burning alive of widows along with the dead bodies of their husbands, they deprecated pardah and advocated equal participation of men and women in saṅgat or religious assembly and in other spheres of life. In an anecdote preserved in Sarūp Dās Bhallā, Mahimā Prakāsh, Gurū Amar Dās (1479-1574) asked the pardah-observing wives of a Rājput hill chief to come to saṅgat unveiled if they wanted to see him. Despite the disapproval of pardah by the Gurūs, some classes of Sikhs — rulers and aristocrats as well as Jaṭṭs of rural Punjab continued to practise it. The Siṅgh Sabhā movement and the spread of modern education, however, led to the gradual elimination of the custom. The pardah system is well on its way to disappearance even amongst the Sikhs of the rural areas.


  1. Bhallā, Sarūp Dās, Mahimā Prakāsh. Patiala, 1971
  2. Baig, Tara Ali, India's Women Power. Delhi, 1976
  3. Mujeeb, M. The Indian Muslims. London, 1967
  4. Marenco, Ethne K., The Transformation of Sikh Society. Portland, Oregon, 1974
  5. Nikky Guninder Kaur Singh, The Feminine Principle in the Sikh Vision of the Transcendent. 1994

Joyce Pettigrew