PARDUMAN SIṄGH GIĀNĪ, BHĀĪ (d. 1877), principal granthī or priest and manager of Srī Darbār Sāhib at Amritsar, was the eldest of the four sons of Bhāī Gurmukh Siṅgh Giānī (d. 1843), a man of learning and an influential courtier in Sikh times. He was the grandson of the celebrated scholar, Bhāī Sant Siṅgh Giānī, who had himself been the custodian of Srī Darbār Sāhib. Besides his inclination to letters which he had inherited, Parduman Siṅgh started taking interest in princely pastimes such as playing chess and dice. He was barely 13 when he joined service under the Sikh sovereign. The family fell a prey to courtly intrigue after the death in 1843 of Mahārājā Sher Siṅgh. Hīrā Siṅgh Dogrā, who had gained power during the reign of the minor Mahārājā Duleep Siṅgh, had Bhāī Gurmukh Siṅgh seized and had him assassinated, along with his two brothers. Parduman Siṅgh and his surviving brother Arjan Siṅgh were taken into custody, placed in chains and treated with the greatest severity. Both eventually managed to escape to Ludhiāṇā where they sought asylum with the British. Hīrā Siṅgh was killed in December 1844 and Sardār Jawāhar Siṅgh, regent to the young Mahārājā Duleep Siṅgh reinstated him as the manager of Srī Darbār Sāhib and his estates. A portion of the jāgīr amounting to 5,488 rupees and the family house, Burj Giānīān, at Amritsar, were also restored to him. Bhāī Parduman Siṅgh was especially entrusted with the development and beautification of the Harimandar Sāhib and its surroundings. After the annexation of the Punjab in 1849, the British government appointed him superintendent of Srī Darbār Sāhib and jāgīrs worth 4,000 rupees per annum released in perpetuity for the maintenance of the shrines. He accompanied Sardār Lahiṇā Siṅgh Majīṭhīā to Vārāṅasī in 1853, but returned to Amritsar after the latter's death the following year. He was a member of the committee that drew up Dastūr ul –‘Amal i.e. administrative rules, for the Darbār Sāhib in 1859. He was also a member of the Board of Honorary Magistrates of Amritsar.

         Bhāī Parduman Siṅgh died at Amritsar on 20 November 1877.


  1. Griffin, Lepel and C.F. Massy, Chiefs and Families of Note in the Punjab. Lahore, 1909
  2. Madanjit Kaur, The Golden Temple, Past and Present. Amritsar, 1983
  3. Fauja Singh, The City of Amritsar. Delhi, 1978
  4. Giān Siṅgh, Giānī, Twārīkh Srī Amritsar. Amritsar, 1977.
  5. Kerr, Ian J., "The British and the Administration of the Golden Temple in 1859," Panjab Past and Present. vol XII.

Ian J. Kerr