PARYĀI, Sanskrit paryāya, meaning a synonym or convertible term, is used in Sikh literature spelt variously as priyāi, priāy and prayāya. It was a popular title for glossaries explaining terms and difficult words used in Gurū Granth Sāhib which were the forerunners of full-scale translations or exegeses of the Scripture. The earliest and the best known are the two volumes by Bhāī Chandā Siṅgh, a scholar of the Giānī school of theology which traces its origin from Gurū Gobind Siṅgh through Bhāī Manī Siṅgh Shahīd. His Priyāi Fārsī Padoṅ Ke is a glossary of Persian words which appear in the Gurū Granth Sāhib, while Priyā Srī Gurū Granth Sāhib Jī Ādi covers all the difficult words and phrases. The latter manuscript bears the date 1905 Bk corresponding to AD 1848. The two manuscripts appeared in print in 1887-88. Priyāi Fārsī Padoṅ Ke was printed at Amar Press, Amritsar, and Priyā Srī Gurū Granth Sāhib Jī Ādi at Chashmā-i-Nūr Press, Amritsar. A second edition of the latter volume was brought out by Messrs Harī Siṅgh Gurdit Siṅgh, Amritsar, in 1908. Another well-known work in this genre is by Sādhū Sute Prakāsh, an Udāsī scholar. His Prayāi Ādi Srī Gurū Granth Sāhib Jī De was published in two parts, at Wazīr-i-Hind Press, Amritsar, in 1898. Two other publications, though not named paryāi, fall in the same category. They are Srī Gurū Granth Kosh published by the Khālsā Tract Society in 1899 and Gurū Bāṇī Parkāsh by Soḍhī, Tejā Siṅgh, published from Lahore in 1932. While the former has words arranged in the alphabetical order, the sequence in the latter follows the numerical order of the pages of the Gurū Granth Sāhib. Another work in this category, Dasam Pātshāhī Jī ke Granth Sāhib Jī ke Sampradai Prayāi by Bakhshīsh Siṅgh also published at Wazīr-i-Hind Press, Amritsar, in 1908, is a glossary of difficult words of the Dasam Granth which contains the compositions of Gurū Gobind Siṅgh.


  1. Chandā Siṅgh, Priyā Srī Gurū Granth Sāhib Jī Ādi. Amritsar, 1908
  2. Gobind Dās, Priyā Srī Gurū Granth Sāhib Jī Ādi. Amritsar, 1929
  3. Sute Prakāsh, Prayāi Ādi Srī Gurū Granth Sāhib Jī De. Amritsar, 1898
  4. Soḍhī, Tejā Siṅgh, Srī Gurū Bāṇī Parkāsh. Amritsar, 1953

Balbīr Siṅgh Nandā