RICHMOND, COLONEL A.F., agent to the Governor-General, North-West Frontier Agency (June 1843-November 1844), who came to the Sutlej frontier when the political situation at Lahore had become unstable. It is believed that the Italian General Ventura, who had gained influence with the new Wazīr, Hīrā Siṅgh, feeling insecure at the Sikh capital, supplied secret intelligence to Col Richmond on the state of affairs in the Punjab. Richmond was among those who believed that the kingdom of Raṇjīt Siṅgh was heading towards disintegration. Hīrā Siṅgh, he surmised, would flee to the Jammū hills and that the Ḍogrās would form an independent state in the hills; that the province of Multān would break loose, and that the Afghāns would ultimately recover Peshāwar. Amidst these conjectures, Richmond was confronted with a few practical problems which he was unable to handle competently. Early in April 1844, Saunders ,his political assistant at Fīrozpur, reported that a treasure valued at 1,500,000 rupees belonging to the deceased Rājā Suchet Siṅgh had been discovered. He hastily ascertained the Sikh Darbār's wishes as to its disposal; then, regretting the step on a hint from superior authority, decided to have it removed secretly to Meerut, but finally allowed it to remain in deposit at Fīrozpur until a rightful claimant was discovered. The matter was allowed to drag on for months and it became a constant source of irritation between the British and the Sikhs. Differences between the two governments also arose in respect of the village of Maurāṅ which the protected ruler of Nābhā had ceded to Raṇjīt Siṅgh. The Nābhā chief became displeased with Hukam Siṅgh, the Lahore grantee, and a Nābhā subject. Richmond, irrespective of the Darbār's remonstrations, recommended the resumption of the village on the grounds that a protected chief had made the gift without the concurrence of the British government. These two incidents caused bitter feelings among the Sikhs, and were recounted by the Darbār and the army as major grievances against the British before the commencement of the first Anglo-Sikh war.

         Richmond was a keen observer of Sikh affairs across the Sutlej. His despatches in the India Secret Proceedings are full of penetrating detail. He was the first British political officer who compiled fairly accurate statistics of the military resources of the Punjab in 1844, which closely tally with the Khālsā Darbār Records — 70,000 men of all arms and 655 guns. He also wrote a highly informative book, A Memoir on the Jammū Rajas, completed in December 1843.

         Lord Hardinge, the governor-general, did not like the moderate policy which Richmond pursued in relation to the Sikhs. "Richmond, I confess," he observed soon after his arrival, "has disappointed me; he blows hot and cold and has no decided opinion." Further, he suspected him to be playing into the hands of Lieut J.D. Cunningham, who was favourably inclined towards the Sikhs. Consequently, he was relieved of his charge on 1 November 1844, Major George Broadfoot replacing him.


  1. Banerjee, A.C., Anglo-Sikh Relations. Calcutta, 1949
  2. Gupta, Hari Ram, Panjab on the Eve of First Sikh War. Chandigarh, 1975
  3. Gough, C. and Innes, A., The Sikhs and the Sikh Wars. London, 1897
  4. Hasrat, Bikrama Jit, Anglo-Sikh Relations (1799-1849). Hoshiarpur, 1968

B. J. Hasrat