VIESKENAWITCH, a Russian adventurer, who, after several years of brigandage, escaped to Persia and took up service under Shāh Abbās Mirzā. He had attained the rank of colonel when he resigned and travelling through Central Asia, reached Peshāwar in January 1829. Here he was employed by Pīr Muhammad Khān Bārakzaī to train his artillery. In March 1830, he came to Lahore and entered Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh's service as a battalion commander, under Gulāb Siṅgh, then serving in Hazārā and Kashmīr. In April 1835, he resigned and proceeded to Gwālīor.


    Grey, C., and Garrett, H.L.O., European Adventurers of Northern India. Lahore, 1929

Gulcharan Siṅgh